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  1. Concept is the first phase in the project life cycle. It includes the development and approval of the business case. During concept stage, Initial ideas about the project are developed, different options are reviewed in order to provide solutions to the problems and opportunities for which the project is required. This phase is important as it usually ends with gate review which approves the preferred option and determines the viability of the project. For example, project is required to provide solutions for the crossing of a river Different options were studied such as new bridge, new tunnel, use ferry, or cable cars, preferred option is building a new bridge.

  • Definition is the second phase in project life cycle at which the preferred option agreed in the earlier phase will be developed as a project. That is an important phase as it includes definitions to the procedures and tools that will be used during the products development. For example, Definition phase includes the development of the Project Management Plan (PMP) and all its component plans such as configuration Management plan, Risk management …etc.

  • Development is the third phase in the project life cycle during which project team are following the procedures defined in the PMP in order to produce and deliver the products defined in the same documents. This phase includes several stage reviews in order to enable monitoring the work progress. This phase is important since by its end products / deliverables are ready to be delivered to the Client. For example, development phase for the river crossing project will include the activities to complete the construction of the bridge.

  • Hand over and closure is the phase during which final product will be commissioned and handed over to the end users. If everything goes right, then the sponsor will sign the approval on behalf of the end users. During this phase Project closure is announced, PACs and FACs are released, and project team members are disbanded. An example for handing over and closure process is the demobilisation of the construction team from site and the commissioning of the bridge crossing the river.

  • Benefits Realisation phase follows the completion of the project. Sponsor is responsible for the benefits realisation together with the end users. Products should be operated in a manner that brings change and improvement to Business as usual activities and should fit in purpose. This phase is important as it determines whether the actual benefits desired from the project are achieved or not. For example, the bridge crossing the river is not designed to carry heavy trucks and hence, will not allow the mobilisation of the machinery to the other side of the river where new development is about to be constructed in other words there is noticed deficiency in the achieved benefits from the project.

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